The most striking thing about reciprocating saws is the fact that they can cut through just about everything. Having a Sawzall in your workshop will definitely help widen the areas of your work and significantly improve your project outcomes.
When I first bought a high-quality saw, it truly changed my life in a certain way. I used to do all the handyman works in my own house and in my parents’ house with a third-grade saw when I often had to deal with blade issues and poorly cut parts. Then I bought a Milwaukee model that was very powerful yet compact at the same time. It allowed me to work in overhead spaces like kitchens. I started getting more interested in this kind of works and started handling different DIY projects in my spare time because I could finally make perfectly accurate cuts without much effort.
This is why I think it is important to understand how saws work and to analyze their capabilities before you start looking for the best reciprocating saw. If you are looking for a new saw that will improve your performance, stay with us and learn more about these amazing devices.
Why you should trust us
Before we proceed with our sawzall reviews let us shed some light on the Drillly team so you’d know what motivated us to design and employ such an elaborate research and review strategy. Our team consists of craftsmen, wood and metalworkers with years of professional experience with different models of saws, cutting and drilling machines.
As much as we care about our skill, we never fail to recognize the importance of the tools we work with. For that matter, our understanding of drilling and cutting tools together with our passion for learning naturally placed us in a position to share our knowledge with the rest of the world.
Here at Drillly we literally handpick each of our chosen products and do personal testing to gather authentic data. Apart from that, our team members simulate different working conditions with a range of relevant working materials in a bid to bring out the highest level of performance from each tool of our list. We are also connected with industry experts who help us navigate through hundreds of products to choose the right ones.
Also, we have no connection with any particular brand or whatsoever, our objective approach for searching for the top rated sawzall models of any power tool category eliminates unethical biases. You can find our research result attached to the review that serves as the justification for our recommendations.
How did we pick these products?
As mentioned before, the Drillly team took a strategic approach to finding the top models of Sawzalls currently up for sale. Initially, we did 28 hours of painstaking research online on different kinds of saws and Sawzalls to shortlist at least 30 models based on their features, dynamic functions, and reliability of their brands.
The next stage started with field testing of each of the primary selections. Our team along with a group of volunteers took part in a two-week-long testing session to find out the real potentials of the units in real-life applications. We gathered usage data from user communities of the primary models as well. We accumulated all the authentic data for a final analytical session where we compared and contrasted the features and applications of each unit on our list. That led us to shortlist the final 10.
However, our work was not done yet! We reached out to the industry experts and engineers to get their opinions on our final list which came out to be absolutely positive. We believe our hard work will finally be paid off if our readers can find the right tool from our list.
Our Top Rated 8 Best Sawzall Review
01 Milwaukee 2625-20 M18 (Our Top Choice)
We chose the Milwaukee 2625-20 M18 Cordless model as for its high performance in. We liked many of its features, including the one-handed design. It allows very good control in comparison to other models. This feature is especially valuable when you don’t have much working space.
Furthermore, the handle has anti-vibration features. You will appreciate this feature, especially when working with heavy lumber pieces. Also, the size of this model is rather compact.
Moreover, this top rated model has many safety and comfort-related features. Namely, it has the quick-lock blade clamp which allows extra-easy handling and blade replacement. In addition, you will benefit from the LED lights providing extra-illuminated workspace. This is very useful as it eliminates shadows and enables you to cut precisely.
Let’s talk about technical features. It is an 18-Volt model which is compatible with Li-ion batteries. You will appreciate the 3,000 SPM speed. It measures 13.8 x 7.6 x 4.2 inches and we can say it is a lightweight model as it weighs 4.5 pounds.
This is simply the best sawzall for you if you want a versatile tool that can be used for PVC, metal, lumber, and branches. Its strongest assets include versatility and excellent control.
- 3,000 SPM working speed
- 5 pounds of weight
- 18 volts
- 8 x 7.6 x 4.2 inches.
- This model is versatile and allows you to use it with different materials
- This is a lightweight model, perfect for tight conditions
- 18-Volts and 3,000 SPM speed provide consistent and quality results
- One handed design for superb control
- Batteries are required, but they’re not included in the package
The one-handed design and extra control, as well as safety features, are what make this saw stand out. Also, this model is perfect for all of you working in tight conditions. It is an ergonomically shaped and designed, lightweight saw. You will appreciate the fact that it is a versatile model with 3,000 SPM speed and the quick-lock blade clamp.
02 Milwaukee 6519-31 (Corded Power Pick)
Some users simply prefer corded Sawzall models. If you are one of them, this is the choice for you. What is the strongest asset of this corded machine? Definitely, we would emphasize its powerful motor. You will benefit from the 12 Amp with 3,000 SPM speed. This is a 120-Volt tool with a 1-1/8-inch stroke length.
Furthermore, we liked the fact that this model too has the quick-lock feature. You don’t need tools to add and remove the blades. There is a convenient latch on the side. Changing blades was never easier!
Moreover, the model is equipped with vibration reduction technology. This provides not only comfort but also precise cuts. Your hand will also feel better after many hours of work.
In addition, we must mention the gear protection clutch. This means that the internal parts of the machine will last longer. This is an excellent feature you should look for when buying your saw, as it will prolong its lifetime.
Now, let’s talk about the package. You will get this device in its original, protective, carrying case. It is made from polyurethane and protects the tool from shock. Also, this model does not require batteries.
- 120 volts
- 65 pounds
- 23 x 11.1 x 5.3 inches
- 1-1/8-Inch Stroke Length
- 3,000 SPM speed
- 12 Amp motor
- Gear protection clutch guarantees a long lifetime
- 12-amp motor and 3,000 SPM speed are perfect for different types of works
- Vibration reduction technology will increase your precision and comfort
- Quick lock feature allows effortless blade changing process
- It comes without the blades
If you are not keen on batteries, we highly recommend you to buy this model. This is an absolutely spot-on corded model that you can happily buy. Its strong technical specifications, namely the 12-amp motor, 3,000 SPM speed, and 1-1/8-inch stroke length will amaze you with its performance. This is one of the most powerful models in the market as well.
In addition, this model comes with the gear protection technology. As a result, you will benefit from your tool for many years to come.
03 Milwaukee 2720-20 M18 (Top Cordless Option)
If you are looking for the best cordless sawzall, look no more. We’ve got it for you. Milwaukee 2720-20 M18 Recip model is a durable and versatile machine. First of all, you will like the fact that it allows you to work very fast.
Moreover, it reduces the heat of the motor, which, in turn, results in a prolonged lifetime of the machine. We want to point out that the engineers from Milwaukee worked on safety features as well. This model has an integrated anti-overheating and overload protection. The battery, charger, and the machine itself are strongly interconnected.
Therefore, we can say that this is a smart tool. This tool is made from a high-carbon steel material that ensures durability and sturdiness. When it comes to the batteries, this device requires one Lithium-ion battery.
However, the product comes without the batteries. In the end, the manufacturer states that this particular model enables 2 times more run time than other saws in this category. More importantly, it has a 5x longer lifetime than similar products!
- 3,000 SPM variable speed motor
- 18 volts
- 8 x 17 x 3 in
- 55 pounds
- 2x more run time than other saws
- 5x longer device lifetime than other saws
- This is a versatile, durable, and sturdy model
- It is made from high-quality high-carbon steel
- It is a cordless device with rechargeable battery
- This is a very fast machine
- 1 Li-ion battery is required, but it is not included in the package
- The product comes without a case
If you don’t want to mess with the cords, or if you enjoy the freedom that the cordless machines provide, or if your working conditions limit you by preventing the use of a corded tool in any way, the Milwaukee 2720-20 M18 is the choice for you. Its 18V motor delivers nothing less than a 20 volt model.
You will need a standard Li-ion battery and some skills to operate this tool like a professional. It is easy to use, convenient and enables consistent results.
04 Milwaukee M12 Hackzall (Budget Choice)
Are you looking for a quality mini saw on a budget? We found the very top model for the money in the market! The winner in this category is the Milwaukee 2420-20. It is definitely way ahead of similar products when it comes to affordability and quality you get in return.
Furthermore, we can say that this model is the winner in the compactness and lightweight tools category as well. It is only 11 inches long and weighs the amazing 2,55 lbs! Therefore, this is a perfect tool for tight spaces.
While we were testing this amazing device, we noticed some useful, smart features that really make your work easier. For example, there is the battery remaining run-time display that notifies you on the time you have left for work without changing or charging the battery. In addition, we liked the LED lights that perfectly illuminate the work surface. This prevents the formation of shadows and guarantees very good and consistent results.
You can choose between several speed options. This helps you keep control over the tool, at any point. In addition, you will appreciate the tool-free and keyless quick-lock blade clamp system which we already talked about.
This 12V model requires standard, Li-ion battery. When it comes to blade compatibility, you will be happy to hear that this tool is compatible both with the Hackzall and Sawzall blades.
- 55 pounds
- 7 x 6.1 x 2.8 inches
- 12 volts
- 5-year warranty
- 1-½-inch stroke
- 3,000 SPM speed
- This is a lightweight and compact model
- It is compatible with different types of blades
- The tool comes with a 5-year warranty
- It has a very good speed of 3,000 SPM
- It requires batteries, but it comes without them
If you are looking for a portable Sawzall on a budget, choosing the Milwaukee 2420-20 is a very smart decision. It is a versatile, durable tool with good blade compatibility, quick lock blade clamp system, and excellent speed.
You will also appreciate the fact that it is lightweight and convenient for tight conditions. Also, we must point out that this cheap model has some smart features, such as the battery run time, as well as very good LED lights, which are among its strongest features.
05 Milwaukee 6538-21 15.0 Amp
The greatest advantage of the Milwaukee 6538-21 15.0 Amp reciprocating saw is ease of use. Truly, when we took this model in our hands, turned it on and started working, the difference between this and other products we tested was obvious.
Effortless use, consistent results, and easy and convenient speed control impressed us. Moreover, it is a durable and sturdy model designed based on the principles of ergonomics.
In addition, it is manufactured in the USA, which is important, as it represents a guarantee of quality according to the national standards.
We liked the fact that this 15-amp motor has the overload protection system, which ensures your peace of mind, as well as a prolonged lifetime, regardless of the warranty type you choose.
In addition, the gear-protection clutch also extends the lifetime of the motor and the whole product. It amortizes the shock and impact.
Finally, the testing process proved that this device provides smooth and effortless use with low vibrations. You will get consistent, quality results. In addition, this product comes in a quality, suitable carrying case.
- 120 volts
- 15 amp
- 65 pounds
- 6 x 11 x 5.3 inches
- 5-year warranty
- Gear-protection clutch and an overload protection system prolong the lifetime of this device
- It comes in a quality carrying and protection case
- 15-amp motor is good for different kinds of works
- This model is designed to allow effortless and comfortable use
- It is manufactured in the USA
- This product is only shipped within the USA
If you are looking for a high-quality, durable model that is easy to use regardless of your level of expertise, Milwaukee 6538-21 is the very top choice for you.
This tool is good for different kinds of materials. You will enjoy the fact that it is equipped with the overload protection system, as well as the gear protection clutch.
06 Milwaukee 2720-21 M18 FUEL
This model by Milwaukee that comes with a carrying case, is very good for very fast cutting. If you are looking for a super-power machine and durability, the 2720-21 M18 model is a wise choice. Let’s go in-depth and learn more about this amazing device.
First of all, you will notice the difference between this model and other similar models regarding the constant power supply which heavily affects the cut speed and result consistency.
In addition, the whole device is made from high-quality and very durable materials. The device is also protected with the overload protection system. How? Simply put, the whole system is interconnected and different parts communicate in order to prevent overheating or motor damage.
Moreover, the package of this battery operated model includes the tool itself, carrying case, extended capacity battery pack, multi-voltage charger (M18 and M12), and a suitable blade. This is one of the greatest advantages of this model, as it is sold with the full package, unlike some other popular devices. This means you can easily use your recip saw without any hassle.
- 15 x 20 x 21 in
- 18 volts
- 30% faster cutting than similar models
- 13 pounds in
- This model comes with a rich accessory and tool package
- It is a very fast device with 30% faster-cutting results than similar models
- The overload protection system prolongs the motor lifetime
- Result consistency is guaranteed with this device
- It is compatible only with the 110 V network
If you are looking for a rigid Sawzall that comes in a rich package offering a good value for the money, this is a choice for you. You will get the charger, the blade, and even the batteries, packed in the suitable carrying and protection case. This model’s greatest advantage is the 30% faster-cutting feature (when compared to other similar models). You will be very satisfied with precise and consistent results.
07 Milwaukee Electric Tool 2520-21XC M12
This electric Sawzall has a very convenient, 1-handed design. It enables superb control over the tool itself and the working process. In addition, it is a versatile tool good for different kinds of materials.
While we were testing this device, we loved the fact that it is a compact model that allows operating in limited spaces.
The 12-volt specification, with 3,2 lbs weight make it suitable for a wide range of applications, ensuring a comfortable use. This model requires batteries. Its battery is the 4.0 size. You will get the tool, one blade, and the carrying case.
In addition, the manufacturer states that this model delivers up to amazing 70% faster-cutting results than similar products in its class, at similar prices. This information amazed us and we wanted to try this product and test it. It truly does deliver significantly faster results than the majority of the competing products.
Moreover, its unique design, with no wearable parts, as well as the overheating protection, ensures a long lifetime. It also has a vibration reduction system and the fatigue protection mechanism. Let’s check the full list of the product specifications.
- 12 volts
- 76 x 2.78 x 8.76 inches
- 3,2 lbs weight
- 70% faster cutting than the competition
- 0 size battery
- 5-year warranty
- 3,000 SPM max speed
- One-handed design
- Very fast cutting results
- Compact size allows use in tight conditions
- Overload protection system prolongs the device lifetime
- Battery is required, but not included in the package
You will definitely appreciate the safety systems this model is equipped with. First of all, there is an overload protection system. In addition, it has the dual gear counterbalance mechanism which results in reduced vibration. This prevents the wear of the internal parts. Also, this cordless model comes with the blade and the carrying case.
08 Milwaukee 2719-20 M18 FUEL Hackzall
This battery-powered tool by Milwaukee measures 4.4 x 14.8 x 6.8 inches and weighs 4.3 pounds. The greatest advantage of this model is that the manufacturer states that it cuts up to 50 percent faster than the majority of the models with similar technical features and in the same price range.
This is a high-quality, one-handed design reciprocating saw that has the anti-vibration system users appreciate so much. This system lowers vibration up to 4 times and is the crucial element that prevents user fatigue. In addition, it prevents friction between the internal parts of the device, hence prolonging its lifetime.
Moreover, you will love the fact that this model is compact and lightweight. Therefore, you can easily use it in overhead works or a tight environment in a safe manner.
This sawing kit has enough power to fulfill even the most demanding and toughest requirements. We must emphasize that it has an advanced system of electronics, as well as overload protection. The charger, battery, and the tool itself are very well interconnected, which results in an impeccable and safe operation.
The brushless motor and 7/8-inch stroke length are good for various applications. You will love the full control you have over the tool, as well as rubber seals that protect the device from water.
- 4 x 14.8 x 6.8 in
- 7/8-inch stroke length
- The 4x lower vibration level
- 4,3 pounds weight
- 0 battery.
- This model is equipped with a rubber seal that protects it from the water
- It has the overheat and overcharging protection systems
- The dual gear counterbalance system reduces vibration and protects the users and the tool
- It is a powerful, 1-handed model
- The battery is not included in the package
If you are looking for a powerful model with lowered vibration system, 5-year warranty, and water-protection rubber seals, that is convenient, compact, lightweight, and perfect for overhead and tight spaces, Milwaukee 2719-20 is the right choice.
It delivers up to 50 percent faster cuts, which will help you deal with tight deadlines. In addition, this model has a 3 times longer life than its competition, according to the manufacturer. Also, this is one of the top Sawzall battery models on the market.
What is meant by Sawzall exactly?
If you are in this business or if you often use a saw as a hobbyist, you definitely have heard of this word so many times. You probably own one too. However, this is an interesting word. What is a Sawzall exactly? It is a name used for a power tool in the ‘saw’ category produced by the reputed brand Milwaukee. They manufacture different kinds of tools and we can say that their Sawzalls are high-quality, and well-known around the world. Actually, we should say that “Sawzall” is the registered, protected trademark of the Milwaukee manufacturer. This tool is also known as ‘Hognose’ and ‘Oscillating saw’.
What are Sawzall tools used for? Unlike jig saws, these power tools are mainly used for demolition works. You can use them to cut through various materials, of different depths and types. Some areas of application include cutting screws, nails, cutting holes through various materials, including wood, lumber, metal, PVC, etc. They are also good for tree pruning, as well as a wide range of different demolition works.
The basic principle behind this tool is the push-pull movement of the blade. The movements are done in a reciprocating manner and this is where the name comes from.
We highly recommend you to learn as much as you can on these tools. This will help you pick the right model for your individual needs.
Who is this product for?
The old fashioned jigsaws have been replaced by Sawzall category reciprocating tools with promising prospects. Sawzall is an extremely versatile hand held tool. It is great for demolition and heavy-duty sawing projects. For example, you cannot imagine woodworkers, demolition workers, and PVC piping workers without a quality Sawzall. You can even prune your entire garden in no time with this tool.
This badass tool is equally good for novices, hobby users, and professionals. If you want to know whether you should buy it or not, stay with us and learn more on who this product is good for in the following paragraph.
This tool is perfect for anyone who deals with demolition works, various DIY projects, installing PVC piping, installing windows, or making wall indentations. Remodeling units, cutting the nails and screws, cutting metal, cutting tree branches, as well as cutting wood are areas in which a Sawzall finds its perfect application. Stay with us, this buyers’ guide will show you the right direction.
Things to consider before buying
The list of criteria when picking a Sawzall can be as long as A4 format paper allows. Many new models are equipped with state-of-the-art features that allow different, innovative approaches. However, such a wide comparison would not provide fair and equal grounds for objective analysis. This is why the following points were marked as the key features for determining the quality:
- Corded vs Cordless
- Weight and size
- Warranty and Accessories
In order to be able to make the correct purchase, you must learn more about each of these features. So, let’s get started.
When we say power here, we don’t refer to the power source, but the motor power. There could be different power sources though, for example– electric, gas, and air. Here, air or gas-powered tools are run on pneumatic mechanism to derive power. However, the corded ones are rated in amps. Simply put, more amps, more power. On the other hand, the cordless Sawzall are rated in amp-hours. Long story short, this shows how long the battery lasts. At the same time, this feature is related to the voltage of the battery. Usually, regular AC current models are not as quiet as the battery-powered models.
Also, more power means that your device is a heavy-duty model that will not let you down even during the most demanding applications and types of materials. Basically, low-power models will allow working with wood, but high-power models will not limit you when it com es to the material.
2. Corded vs cordless
We can say that we already opened this topic when explaining some things about motor power. However, there are some other things we must mention when it comes to differences between the corded and cordless models.
Generally, we can say that reciprocating saws are not different or special when it comes to the differences between the corded and cordless devices in terms of their pros and cons. Simply put, different things work for different users. If you work in a workshop, and usually have a stationary workplace, a corded model might be more convenient for you.
In addition, corded models are usually lightweight, more convenient, and more powerful. They are sometimes also cheaper.
On the other hand, if you usually work on a site and have to use the saw on tight working conditions, overhead spaces, or places where there is no constant/convenient electricity source, the cordless, battery powered models are your top option.
3. Weight & size
You may not have to worry about the size and weight when you are using a top-class band saw. But these two factors heavily affect the ease with which you operate and control the device. It is good to opt for a lightweight model, as this prevents user fatigue. This is especially important if you are a professional, as you will be using it for many hours a day. However, don’t compromise power, as you have to balance the weight and power. These two features are codependent.
On the other hand, the size of the model depends on your work environment and the application you use the saw for the most. Overhead spaces and tight spaces, in general, do require a compact model with smaller dimensions.
When we say performance, we usually refer to the accuracy of cuts and speed of the device. Both of these things are extremely important to you and your job. Client satisfaction depends on both.
Strokes per minute show the speed of the device. Advanced Sawzall models allow you to control and adjust the speed and stay in control all the time.
The performance also depends on stroke length. Stroke length heavily affects speed. It usually varies from ¾-inch to ¼-inch. You can also pick an adjustable saw.
In addition, the amperage heavily affects the tool performance. The greater the amperage, the more powerful the device.
Ergonomics is very important as this will affect the performance and user fatigue. The ergonomically-shaped model will feel more comfortable and you will be able to complete your work without getting tired.
One-handed models are especially suitable if you are looking for ease of operation combined with good control. In addition, check for the handle material when buying your saw. It should provide a safe and comfortable grip. Remember that plastic handles are uncomfortable and not very safe. Foam and similar shock and impact-amortizing materials are welcome. Beware of the angles of your model, if you are right-handed, get the one with right angle and vice versa.
This group of elements actually includes a variety of things, such as special safety systems, anti-wear protection, useful quick-lock blade clamp, and similar technologies that make a user’s life easier.
In addition, features such as multiple speed settings, adjustability, compatibility with different blades, as well as suitability for different materials are among the things you should look out for when buying the Sawzall.
7. Warranty & accessories
These two features – a good warranty and lots of useful accessories often represent the turning point in the minds of the users who are making their purchase decision.
A good Sawzall should come with a blade (or blades), a carrying case, a charger, and batteries if it is cordless, as well as a cleaning cloth.
The Milwaukee manufacturer usually offers 5 years limited warranty on their products. You should not buy a product without any warranty.
When it comes to the budget, this is also a go/no-go point for many users. However, if you are a professional user, remember that you should not save money on your Sawzall. These are quality and versatile products that will pay off very quickly. In addition, investing a bit more usually means a more powerful model which is ergonomically-shaped or comes with lots of accessories.
On the other hand, you can also find some quality products in the affordable category as well. We will show you some good, affordable models in our sawzall reviews section.
Sawzall usage & maintenance tips
As this is a guide good for beginners, hobby users, but also professionals, we must talk about some important tips on using and maintaining the Sawzall. It is very important to keep it in good condition as this is the only way to prolong its lifetime and ensure superb results.
Choosing the blades
Choosing the correct and appropriate blades is very important for three reasons: your own safety, protecting the tool, and obtaining the top result. Choose the blades according to the manufacturer’s guidelines, as well as according to the type of material you are working with. Please note that blades of a sawzall, scroll saw and band saw are different. So, don’t mix them up when choosing one.
Wearing safety gear
Using a safety, protection equipment and gear should be a well-known basic precaution for anyone even thinking of buying a Sawzall. However, we must once again say that you must always wear safety glasses, gloves, and even chainsaw chaps if needed. Remember that the blade is razor-sharp and that you must always think of your own safety and safety of people around you when operating the Sawzall.
Cleaning the device
After your work is finished, take a few minutes to gently wipe off the saw. You should never let dust and debris build up on the blade. It is very easy to gently wipe it once the saw is safely turned off and unplugged. This will keep your tool in a good shape and ready for the next use.
Here are some other reciprocating saw manufacturers you shouldn’t miss out: Ryobi, Kawasaki, Dewalt (popular model- Flexvolt, DC385), Mastercraft, Hitachi, Black & Decker (popular model-Firestorm), Bosch (popular model- RS 325), Harbor Freight, Ridgid, Porter Cable (popular model- 9746 Tiger Saw), Rockwell, Skilsaw, Makita (popular model- JR3070CT AVT, XRJ06Z 36V, JR3000V), Hyper Tough, Skil, Hilti, Sears, and Kobalt.
Finally, we can say that we managed to make a comprehensive, quality guide on buying a Sawzall completed with the review of 8 top models. We covered the topics including types and basic features and tried to give you a detailed, analytical, and useful guide to help you make the right decision.
We found the best Sawzall in the market based on our thorough research. It is the Milwaukee 2625-20. The reasons include its versatility, powerful motor, ergonomic design and lots of state-of-the-art level innovative solutions.
Next, we chose the Milwaukee 2720-20 as our cordless pick and the Milwaukee 6519-31 as the top corded pick. We also figured out the top model for the money – the Milwaukee 2420-20.
However, there are many other top-rated Sawzall models in the market. Therefore, don’t forget to focus on your own needs, type of work you usually do, as well as the materials you will be using the tool for. This will significantly help you in making your choice.
Q: What are Sawzalls used for?
Ans: Sawzalls or Reciprocating saws are used for a variety of reasons. From cutting woods, trimming tree branches to demolishing debris and houses, people use sawzalls for fast and effective results. You can even use them for cutting metal, for that, you’d need special blades.
Q: Why is it called a Sawzall?
Ans: The Milwaukee Electric Tool Company has labelled their reciprocating saw models as Sawzall. It’s the company that gave birth to this badass tool and also named it uniquely.
Q: Can you use a reciprocating saw to cut trees?
Ans: That depends on the size of the tree. Usually, a reciprocating saw is used to cut the branches without any trouble. For medium size trees, it can do the job. Still, you might need a different option if you go for a big tree.